Process of THB for labour exploitation
The process of THB for labour exploitation has six steps or aspects: recruitment, entry and identity, residence status, housing, work and financial aspects. These are all things a trafficker has to organise before they can start profiting from the exploitation of others.
Six steps in the process of THB for labour exploitation
- Recruitment: the trafficker needs to recruit the victims.
- Entry and identity: if the victims are third-country nationals, the trafficker has to find a way to move them into the country where he/she intends to exploit them. Victims from third countries may also need (false) identity documents to gain entry to the country, register as an inhabitant and so on.
- Residence status: the trafficker may need to find a way to obtain a residence status for victims from third countries.
- Housing: the trafficker will need to find a place to house the victims.
- Work: the trafficker will need to find work to exploit the victims’ labour, and
- Financial aspects: the trafficker will need to launder the money he/she earns from the exploitation to be able to use it.
Each of these aspects provides a point of intervention for governmental organisations: it is possible to receive, recognise and communicate signs of THB for labour exploitation, or to take measures to prevent or fight THB for labour exploitation.
By dividing the process of trafficking into separate steps, it is possible to zoom in on a specific element and consider the possibilities it offers to counteract THB for labour exploitation. For example, recruitment may be prevented by making vulnerable people aware of the risks of THB. Victims may be intercepted when they enter the country if the border guards know what to look for. And the members of a network involved in THB for labour exploitation may be identified when criminal investigators follow the money trail.
The Dutch authorities apply the so-called barrier model to these six aspects of THB for labour exploitation.
Specific information for organisations
In the section Your organisation, you can find what different organisations could do regarding these six different aspects of THB for labour exploitation. Almost all organisations have specific information about one or more of the steps in the process: